/>th century. This was a time where the Muslim world became the intellectual center of art, philosophy, medicine, science, architecture and engineering, commerce, and education. It was an era of great advances in technology and culture. The Muslim world was the source of knowledge, not only because of the advancements made during this era, but because the Muslim scholars used to translate classic and historical works into Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Hebrew and Latin. If it were not for these translations, these works, some of them of famous Greek philosophers, would have been lost.

Zubaida was born into this time of productivity and advancement. She lived during and after the time of Imam Al-Shafi’i. Growing up, Zubaida’s grandfather considered her education a top priority and allocated the best teachers and scholars for her. She was very intelligent and loved to learn. She was especially attached to Quran, hadith and Arabic literature.

She married Harun Al-Rashid, who was the fifth Abbasid Caliph (there were a total of 38 Abbasid Caliphs). As a queen, Zubaida was eloquent in speech and received great respect and admiration from the people. She was the most powerful and wealthy woman in the world at her time. Harun would always seek her advice concerning all matters and she was known to always provide him with wise and valuable decisions. Of her many talents, Zubaida was a poet and she used to enter many competitions. She allocated large amounts of funds for poets, literary figures and scientists to come to Baghdad.

It was said that Zubaida and Harun enjoyed a wonderful marriage. They were partners as a married couple, as parents, and as rulers. The currency at the time had both his and her name printed. It was well known that Harun would work with his wife on decisions but nevertheless, she always let him take credit for it.

Zubaida was a very devout Muslim and never missed a prayer. She hired 100 servant girls to constantly recite Quran throughout the palace so that wherever you were, the versus of the Quran were echoed around you.  She also made Hajj many times, often making the 900 mile trip from Baghdad to Mecca on foot. During one of her pilgrimages, she noticed that there was a water problem in Mecca. Many Muslims performing Hajj could not afford drinking water in areas in Mecca, near Mount Arafat, Mina and Muzdalefa. Zubaida was so distressed by seeing this that she brought forth the best engineers to build a canal that provided free water throughout all areas of Mecca. The water was brought from over the mountains for many miles and from the ground using tunnels, pits, channels, and all other methods. She was very involved in the whole process as she herself was educated in the ways of building and planning cities and infrastructure. The whole project took three years and cost the equivalent of billions of dollars in our time, which she personally paid from her own money.

Not only did she build this water system in Mecca, but also she created a path from Baghdad to Mecca to make it easier to travel to Hajj. There was a path that existed but it was always fading away because of desert sand and weather conditions. So to solve this problem, Zubaida built up walls that provided shelter to the travelers from the blowing sand and she also built masjids and hostels along the way.

During the Ottoman Empire, the canals were repaired and maintained very well. For over 600 years, they provided the pilgrims with free drinking water. The canals only became discontinued about 30 or 40 years ago. In 1988, King Fahad built a large water desalination plant 100 km from Mecca, which can now accommodate the extremely large numbers of pilgrims that come each year. However, the canal was not forgotten and in 2001, King Abdullah allocated a committee to preserve it in order to maintain it historic importance.

Today, if you go to Mecca, you can still see it. According to Dr. Umar Farouq Abd-Allah, one of the channels is in an area called Aziziah, which is outside Mecca towards Mina. Another channel can be seen on the side of Mount Arafat.

A channel of the canal on the side of Mount Arafat

(left) A look inside the canal (right) the part of the canal along Jabal Al-Rahmat

What can we learn from this story:

*There are not as many lessons embedded in this story as there are of women from the prophetic time, but just realizing the historical impact of these Muslim women makes me feel that there is so much we dont know and so much to learn. Not to mention, so much to live up to.

*I have read a lot of stories talking about how Zubaida used to never one up her husband and always let him be the man of the house and take credit for many public decisions, even though they were made by her. Modern feminism will tell you that she is being weak when she does that and by doing so she is taking away her own rights or  equality. However, I disagree. Zubaida was remembered in history more than her husband was and some historical events like this canal were done by her and in her name. That is the difference between Islam and modern feminism. In Islam, men and women are equal but their different roles are recognized. Women dont need to be exactly like men in order to be equal. Zubaida had her rights as an equal to her husband in every way but was respectful to his position as the leader of the household. Doing so, did not in any way diminish her importance or status in their relationship or in her post as queen.

P.S. between you and me, I recommend you read up on the Islamic Golden Age. Its LEGIT! (as in UH-MA-ZING)

Abd-Allah, Dr. Umar Faruq. “Famous Women in Islam.” Lecture.

Khan, Nasreen. “Zubaida Bint Jafar.” Web.<>

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  1. Amal alganem Says: January 6, 2012 at 9:31 am

    I knew zubaida lived a very lavish life style, but I never knew that she built water canals for the pilgrims. this is good

  2. Asia Rehman Says: February 20, 2012 at 6:38 pm

    Thank you so much for relating this to us and taking the time out to research these historical facts for us. It is truly amazing to hear such wonderful stories, this one and all the others you have related. Especially as it would take us so much time and effort to dig out these facts by ourselves (which we really should do), and you have made it easy by compiling as many stories as you can about amazing women from our beautiful religion! Please keep up the good work, I have just come across this site and have read many amazing stories and I look forward to reading many more (I think I’ll be up all night!). May Allah reward you for all your efforts, in this life and the next and may we all be bestowed with your perseverance in gaining knowledge which is beneficial for us, Ameen!

  3. […] was founded by Caliph Harun Al Rashid (Zubayda’s husband) and it became more like a university that contained books because it was a place where […]

  4. […] Zubayda al-Rashid – Who was born in the latter part of the 8th Century and was a talented and well-educated leader in her time. The wife of the Caliph Harun Al-Rashid, she used her resources to support the advancement of literature and education. A woman of faith who made several pilgrimages to Mecca, she supported the building of roadways and hostels to facilitate travel for other pilgrims. An article on Zubayda al-Rashid can be read here. […]

  5. Salam,

    May I know what font has been used for the Title “Queen Zubaida bint Jafar Al-Mansour”


  6. Salam
    What font did you use for the title?

  7. Ch Shoukat Ali Says: February 15, 2014 at 12:04 am

    wana follow your visions The Great Queen Zubayda al-Rashid

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